Types of imaging tests: X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET.
Accessory items are frequently as important as the x-ray machine itself. Included are positioning aids, cassette holders, beam-collimation devices, beam filters, and grids.
Interventional radiologists are doctors that use imaging such as CT, ultrasound, MRI, and fluoroscopy to help guide procedures. The imaging is helpful to the doctor when inserting catheters, wires, and other small instruments and tools into your body.
There are three main adjustable controls that regulate the 1) tube voltage in kilovolts, 2) the tube amperage in milliamps, and the 3) exposure time in minutes and seconds. Some systems also have a switch to change the focal spot size of the tube
The two most common radionuclides used in industrial radiography are Iridium-192 and Cobalt-60.
X-ray film displays the radiographic image and consists of emulsion (single or double) of silver halide (silver bromide (AgBr) is most common) which when exposed to light, produces a silver ion (Ag+) and an electron. The electrons get attached to the sensitivity specks and attract the silver ion.
A 3D Cone Beam CT helps provide much more information than a conventional X-ray. It is steadily becoming one of the most used scans in the dentistry industry. A 3D Cone Beam scan is invaluable for dentists who may specialize in reconstructive or dental implant surgeries.
Diagnostic imaging tests
- X-rays. The most common diagnostic imaging exam performed in medical facilities is the X-ray, which is a broad term that also covers numerous sub-categories. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. Unlike light, however, x-rays have higher energy and can pass through most objects, including the body. Medical x-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body.
- X-rays can be used to examine most areas of the body. They're mainly used to look at the bones and joints, although they're sometimes used to detect problems affecting soft tissue, such as internal organs. Problems that may be detected during an X-ray include: bone fractures and breaks.
- The “X” in X-ray stands for the unknown, just as x stands for an unknown quantity in mathematics. During World War I, X-rays were already being used for medical purposes, including locating bullets in the human body.
- CT scan. - A CT scan is a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce images of the inside of the body. It shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, organs and blood vessels. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.
- Diagnose muscle and bone disorders, such as bone tumors and fractures. Pinpoint the location of a tumor, infection or blood clot. Guide procedures such as surgery, biopsy and radiation therapy. Detect and monitor diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, lung nodules and liver masses.
- You can expect your CT scan appointment to last approximately 15 minutes start to finish. If you are having a CT scan with oral contrast, it could take as long as an hour and 15 minutes. Once the CT scan is complete, a radiologist will study the images and share the results with your doctor.
- MRI. - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. An MRI scanner is a large tube that contains powerful magnets. You lie inside the tube during the scan.
- On the day of your MRI scan, you should be able to eat, drink and take any medication as usual, unless you're advised otherwise. In some cases, you may be asked not to eat or drink anything for up to 4 hours before the scan, and sometimes you may be asked to drink a fairly large amount of water beforehand.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the inside of your body. It may be used to help diagnose or monitor treatment for a variety of conditions within the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
- Mammogram. - Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or microcalcifications.
- “We recommend mammogram screening to start no earlier than age 40 and no later than age 50 for women of average risk for breast cancer, and continue through to at least age 74,”
- The compression can make a mammogram painful for some women, but for most it is mildly uncomfortable, and the sensation lasts for just a short time. Still, some women may skip regular mammograms because they're anxious or stressed about the discomfort.
- Ultrasound. - Diagnostic ultrasound, also called sonography or diagnostic medical sonography, is an imaging method that uses sound waves to produce images of structures within your body. The images can provide valuable information for diagnosing and directing treatment for a variety of diseases and conditions.
- The test can provide information about a baby's growth, development, and overall health. Diagnostic ultrasound is used to view and provide information about other internal parts of the body. These include the heart, blood vessels, liver, bladder, kidneys, and female reproductive organs
- The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves through your body. The waves echo as they hit a dense object, such as an organ or bone. Those echoes are then reflected back into a computer. The sound waves are at too high of a pitch for the human ear to hear.
- Fluoroscopy. - Fluoroscopy is a medical procedure that makes a real-time video of the movements inside a part of the body by passing x-rays through the body over a period of time. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation.
- Fluoroscopy, as an imaging tool, enables physicians to look at many body systems, including the skeletal, digestive, urinary, respiratory, and reproductive systems.
- During a fluoroscopy procedure, an X-ray beam is passed through the body. The image is transmitted to a monitor so the movement of a body part or of an instrument or contrast agent (“X-ray dye”) through the body can be seen in detail.
- PET Scan - Positron emission tomography (PET) scans produce detailed 3-dimensional images of the inside of the body. The images can clearly show the part of the body being investigated, including any abnormal areas, and can highlight how well certain functions of the body are working.
- A PET scan is an effective way to help identify a variety of conditions, including cancer, heart disease and brain disorders. Your doctor can use this information to help diagnose, monitor or treat your condition.
- PET scans detect areas of activity (like cell growth) in the body. More radioactive material collects in cancer cells than normal cells and will appear brighter on the image. Not all cancers show up on a PET scan. PET scan results are often used with other imaging and lab test results.
- If undergoing a combination PET-CT scan, the iodine-based contrast dye used for the CT component can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, flushing, and mild rash. In rare cases, a serious, all-body allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis may occur.