Various types of pipe fittings are available in plumbing systems for different purposes and functions. A pipe fitting is used in a plumbing system to join multiple pipes of the same size or different sizes, to regulate the flow or to measure the flow. They are made up of different materials like copper, iron, brass, and many more. Pipe Fittings used in piping work are mainly Elbow, Tee, Reducer, Union, Coupling, Cross, Cap, Swage Nipple, Plug, Bush, Expansion Joint, Adapters, Olet (Weldolet, Sockolet, Elbowlet, Thredolet, Nipolet, Letrolet, Swepolet), Steam Traps, Long Radius Bend, Flanges and Valve. Browse through this category for various pipe fittings available in Zambian stores.
Different pipe fittings
A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe or tube, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.
There are different kinds of pipe fittings used in piping systems. The main and most commonly sought are: elbows, tees, reducers, unions, couplings, crosses, caps, swage nipples, plugs, bushings, adapters, outlets, valves & flanges.
Tees, Wyes and Crosses
All three designs come in standard designs (in which all outlets/inlets are the same diameter) and reducing designs (in which one or more is a different size).
Couplings are pipe fittings that help to extend or terminate pipe runs. These fittings are also used to change pipe size. It's also used to repair a broken or leaking pipe. Most pipe installations require several lengths of pipe to be joined together or cut to facilitate changes in direction and crossing of obstacles.
Pipes are connected with the help of joints. A variety of joints are used in an assembly of pipes. Connecting two or more pipes together is called a fitting. Various types of joints could be used in a pipe as per the requirement.
Joints are also used for multiple pipe connections and are an important component of the plumbing system. Generally, the pipe joint fitted can easily sustain the pressure created in the pipe
Types of Pipe Joint.
Threaded Joint. - Threaded joint means, pipes are connected by screwing with the help of threads provided for each pipe. One pipe having internal threads and the other one having threads externally. Cast iron pipes, copper pipes, PVC and G.I pipes are available with threads.
Brazed Joint.- Brazed joints are generally used to achieve higher joint strength or fatigue resistance. To accomplish this, filler metals stronger than those composed primarily of tin must be used.
Spigot and Socket joint. - A spigot joint is a type of pipe fitting connection that is inserted into another pipe fitting. The spigot end typically has the same outer diameter as the pipe and is usually fitted into another joint called a bell or socket.
Socket Welded Joint. - It is one of the most common methods of joining pipes used in large infrastructure like a commercial, institutional and industrial systems. The cost of material is low, but the labour costs are more due to the non-availability of trained welders and fitters.
Soldered Joint. - Soldered joints are material-closed joints (bonds) of two solderable metals. There are different forms of soldered joints. Wire-to-wire joints as parallel, cross or hook joints as well as soldered joints with twisted wires. Parallel and cross joints are mechanically connected by the solder only and, therefore, can be more easily detached.
Welded Joint (Butt Welded, Socket Welded) - Groove welded joints, also called butt welds, are weldments that are commonly used when joining similar pipes together. They can also be used to join pipes to valves, fittings, and flanges for a secure attachment. For piping of certain thickness, the pipe may be cut at a sloping right angle before being welded.
Flanged Joint. - A flange is a method of connecting pipes, valves, pumps and other equipment to form a piping system. It also provides easy access for cleaning, inspection, or modification. Flanges are usually welded or screwed. Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them to provide a seal.
Compression Joint. - A compression fitting is a fitting used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubes or thin-walled pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar materials are to be joined, the fittings will be made of one or more compatible materials appropriate for the connection.
Grooved Joint. - When two pipes are joined together by making grooves (narrow cuts or depression) at the end of pipes with the help of sockets or couplings, such joints are called grooved joints. Due to the ease of assembly of the grooved joints, the labour cost is less. The piping system can be easily uninstalled and reinstalled frequently for maintenance. These are mostly used for fire protection.
Push-Fit Joint. - This type of joint features a toothed ring to grip the pipe and a rubber O-ring to create the seal. The end of the copper (or plastic) pipe is pushed into the joint until it hits the internal stop in the middle. The joint can be pulled apart by pushing the ring against the joint and slowly pulling to pipe out. Push-fit joints are very quick, easy and reliable to use, but cannot be used for all applications (such as connecting directly to a boiler).
Hep2o Joint. - Hep2o joints are similar to compression joints but designed specifically for use with polybutylene pipes (although they can be used on copper pipes). The pipe is pushed into the end of the joint and the cap nut is tightened, compressing the internal grab ring. Hep2o joints can be reused, but you need a special tool to release and remove the grab ring.